Why is there a tide?

This is the title of Chapter 4 of an Elsevier volume called “Journey through Tides”

Sophie Ward, David Bowers, Mattias Green, Sophie-Berenice Wilmes,
Chapter 4 – Why is there a tide?,
Editor(s): Mattias Green, João C. Duarte,
A Journey Through Tides,
Pages 81-113,
ISBN 9780323908511,
Abstract: Tides are created by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun on the ocean. More exactly, it is the variation in these forces that creates tides. The Earth and Moon are held in orbit by their mutual gravitational attraction. The Moon’s gravity is exactly right at the center of the Earth, but it is a little too strong in the Earth hemisphere facing the Moon and a little too weak in the opposite hemisphere. These discrepancies make the tide generating force. As the Earth spins, the ocean experiences an oscillating force which creates long tide waves – the crest of the wave is the high tide and the trough low tide. In the deep ocean, the amplitude of the tide wave is small, but on the continental shelf, the wave is amplified by resonance, making the large tidal range we see at some coasts.
Keywords: Tides; Tide generating force; Cotidal charts; Tidal dynamics; Tidal dissipation

The domain experts selected to answer this question assert this:

“While this is not an exhaustive list of why the tide is important, it is important to note here that perhaps the most physically far-reaching influence of the tide, long-term, is on the change in day length.”

The day length impact is straight-forward to understand for a rotating solid body as the total angular momentum is conserved between the Earth, smaller Moon, and much larger sun. This is essentially a linear perturbation causing the Earth’s rotational period to slightly change leading the length-of-day (LOD) to cycle. But what is it for the Earth’s oceans, which isn’t pinned to its base?

“Internal waves are another form of gravity wave which occur within the water body on internal interfaces, for example, when the interface between water masses of different densities is disturbed.”

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A Digital Twin of ENSO

The idea of a digital twin is relatively new in terms of coinage of terms, but the essential idea has been around for decades. In the past, a digital twin was referred to as a virtual simulation of a specific system, encoded via a programming language. In the case of a system that was previously built, the virtual simulation emulated all the behaviors and characteristics of that system, only operated on a computer, with any necessary interactive controls and displays provided on a console, either real or virtual. A widely known example of a VS is that of a flight simulator, which in historical terms was the industrial forerunner to today’s virtual reality. A virtual simulation could also be used during the design of the system, with the finished digital twin providing a blueprint for the actual synthesis of the end-product. This approach has also been practiced for decades, both in the electronics industry via logic synthesis of integrated circuits from a hardware description language and with physical products via 3D printing from CAD models.

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Gist Evaluation

The Gist site on GitHub allows you to comment on posts very easily. For example, images of charts can be pasted in the discussion area. Also snippets of code can be added and updated, which is useful for neural net evaluation. The following is a link to an initial Gist area for evaluating LTE models.

Comparison of LTE models applying slight variations of tidal forcing but larger allowance of basin tidal modulation






Comparison of forcing


image image


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